|Latin term||English term|
Literally, "beginning a web"
Composed of two main functions: to inform the audience of the object of the discourse and to dispose the audience to be receptive to the argument. There are 5 types of introductions:
|Narratio||Statement of fact, Description of topic, Exposition
This section informs the audience about the most important features or facts concerning the topic of the discourse. A scholarly review of statistics, authoritative opinion, literature, etc. would be appropriate here. In Lit articles, there is often a bibliographic endnote associated with the narratio.
|Confirmatio or Probatio||Confirmation or Proof
This is the argument of the paper. Here the writer will likely define terms to her/his advantage, make logically-connected claims, offer supporting material to buttress those claims, and come to a compelling conclusion.
In this section of the discourse, the writer will undermine opposing claims or arguments by appealing to: reason, emotion, ethics, and wit or word play (including analogy).
|Peroratio--literally, a "finishing off"||Conclusion
According to Aristotle, a conclusion should: