__Special Topics:__

__Tunneling:__

- E. Burstein, S. Lundqvist, ed.
*Tunneling Phenomena in Solids*. - E. Wolf,
*Principles of Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy*. - *** Aephraim M. Steinberg, University of Toronto -- Nonlocality & Tunneling Times (I can supply some of his papers)

__Schrödinger's Cat:__

In addition to the xerox, you might try these:

- Goetsch, P.; Graham, R.; Haake, F., "Schrödinger
Cat States and Single Runs for the Damped Harmonic Oscillator",
*Physical Review A*(Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics)**51**, 136 (1995). - John Gribbin,
*In Search of Schrodinger's Cat: Quantum Physics and Reality*. - Walker, E.H.; May, E.C.; Spottiswoode, S.J.P.; Piantanida,
T., "Testing Schrödinger's Paradox with a Michelson Interferometer",
*Physica B & C***151**, 339 (1988). [WARNING: this describes an experiment carried out at SRI, which is an institution to be viewed with some suspicion. They're not total fruitcakes, but neither are they mainstream.] - N. G. Van Kampen, "Ten Theorems about Quantum Mechanical
Measurements",
*Physica A***153**, 97 (1988). - C. N. Villars, "The Paradox of Schrödinger's
Cat",
*Physics Education***21**, 232 (1986). ABSTRACT: Erwin Schrödinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrödinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox,*i.e*. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism (13 Refs.) [Note: You may wish to coordinate with anyone writing about the many-worlds hypothesis, who will also be interested in this article.] - A. Peres, "Schrödinger's Immortal Cat",
*Foundations of Physics***18**, 57 (1988). ABSTRACT: The author reviews and clarifies the quantum 'measurement problem'. The latter originates in the ambivalent nature of the 'observer'. Although the observer is not described by the Schrödinger equation, it should nevertheless be possible to 'quantize' him and include him in the wave function if quantum theory is universally valid. The problem is to prove that no contradiction may arise in these two conflicting descriptions. The proof invokes the notion of irreversibility. The validity of the latter is questionable, because the standard rationale for classical irreversibility, namely mixing and coarse graining, does not apply to quantum theory. There is no chaos in a closed, finite quantum system. However, when a system is large enough, it cannot be perfectly isolated from its 'environment', namely from external (or even internal) degrees of freedom which are not fully accounted for in the Hamiltonian of that system. As a consequence, the long-range evolution of such a quantum system is essentially unpredictable. It follows that the notion of irreversibility is a valid one in quantum theory and the 'measurement problem' can be brought to a satisfactory solution (31 Refs.) - David J. Griffiths,
*Introduction to Quantum Mechanics*, p. 381-383. - Roger Penrose,
*The Emperor's New Mind*or*Shadows of theMind*or .... - Daniel M. Greenberger, ed.,
*New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory*, New York Academy of Sciences (1986)

__Macroscopic Quantum:__

Here are some technical articles which I suggest you try in the order given. I have ordered a less technical book through interlibrary loan, but it may be a week before it gets here.

- A. J. Leggett, "Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling: An
Overview of the Background",
*Journal of Applied Physics***73**, 6715 (1993). - "Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling and Coherence":
A.J. Leggett in
*Quantum Tunneling in Condensed Media*, eds. Yu Kagan and A.J. Leggett, (Elsevier Science 1992) for a recent discussion of the theory, and M.H. Devoret in the same volume for a discussion of the experiments. - A. J. Leggett, "Quantum Mechanics at the Macroscopic
Level", a chapter in
*Directions in Condensed Matter Physics: Memorial Volume in Honor of Shang-keng Ma*, ed. G. Grinstein and G. Mazenko. - L. E. Ballentine, "Realism and Quantum Flux Tunneling",
*Physical Review Letters***59**, 1493 (1987). - D. D. Awschalom, D. P. DiVincenzo, J. F. Smyth, "Macroscopic
Quantum Effects in Nanometer-Scale Magnets",
*Science***258**, 414 (1992). - J. M. Martinis, M. H. Devoret, D. Esteve, C. Urbina,
"Measuring the time spent traversing the barrier while tunneling",
*Physica B***152**, 159 (1988). - J. Tejada, X. X. Zhang, L. Balcells,
*Journal of Applied Physics***73**, 6709 (1993). - Contact Venkat Chandrashekhar and Anupam Garg at Northwestern University

- Ivars Peterson, "Cavities of Chaos",
*Science News***147**, 264 (1995) This describes experiments by a friend of mine, Arshad Kudrolli. - Ivars Peterson, "Rebounding Electrons in Quantum
Arenas",
*Science News***149**, 247 (1996)

In addition to these materials, most quantum texts have a short section on this.

- John Gribbin,
*In Search of Schrodinger's Cat: Quantum Physics and Reality*. A popularization - note chapter 10 on the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. - N. D. Mermin, "Is the Moon There When Nobody Looks?
Reality and the Quantum Theory",
*Physics Today***38**, 38 (1985). Highly readable discussion of Bell's Theorem and the EPR paradox. This article should be considered REQUIRED reading for anyone mentioning this topic. - N. D. Mermin, "Limits to Quantum Mechanics as a
Source of Magic Tricks",
*Physical Review Letters***74**, 831 (1995).

__Parallel Universe Theory:__

see p.194 in the following (this is also known as the "many worlds interpretation")

J. E. Baggott, *The Meaning of Quantum Theory : a Guide
for Students of Chemistry and Physics*

- Bryce S. DeWitt and Neill Grahm, ed.,
*The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics*. - Hugh Everett III,
*Reviews of Modern Physics***29**, 454 (1957) - C. N. Villars, "The Paradox of Schrödinger's
Cat",
*Physics Education***21**, 232 (1986). ABSTRACT: Erwin Schrödinger first described the thought-experiment which has since become known as 'the paradox of Schrödinger's cat' 51 years ago. In recent years, popular accounts of quantum mechanics have tended to adopt one or other of the philosophically most extreme solutions to this paradox,*i.e*. the consciousness hypothesis or the many worlds interpretation. The author attempts to redress the balance by describing what he takes to be the orthodox solution to the paradox which explains the paradox, without recourse to such counterintuitive notions as a cat simultaneously dead and alive or a universe continually splitting into multiple worlds, as being due to a misapplication of the quantum formalism (13 Refs.) [Note: You may wish to coordinate with anyone writing about Schrödinger's cat, who might also be interested in this article.]

Carl Zimmer, "Getting There is Half the Fun",
*Discover ***15**, 100 (1994).

Here are some possibilities I turned up -- I'm sure you can find others.

- Louis de Lomenie,
*Sketches of Conspicuous Living Characters of France*. Translated by R. M. Walsh. - William C. Price, Seymour S. Chissick, Tom Ravensdale,
eds.,
*Wave mechanics; the first fifty years*. A tribute to Professor Louis de Broglie, Nobel laureate, on the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the wave nature of the electron.

There are dozens of good-looking possibilities in the library catalog

- R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, M. Sands,
*The Feynman Lectures on Physics*, Ch 21, especially the first four sections - Werner Bayh, "Measurement of the Continuous Phase
Shift of Electron Waves in Force-Field-Free Space by the Magnetic Vector
Potential of a Tungsten Solenoid",
*Zeitschrift Für Physik***169**, 492 (1962). [Translated by my old office-mate, Walter Fox Smith.] - Alan M. Portis,
*Electromagnetic Fields: Sources and Media* - Albert Shadwitz,
*The Electromagnetic Field* - Walter Fox Smith,
*Quantum Conductance Fluctuations of Mesoscopic Amorphous Wires*, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University, 1989. (I was a part of this project, so I have a special affinity for it). - Sean Washburn and Richard A. Webb, "Quantum Interference
Fluctuations in Disordered Metals",
*Physics Today***41**, 46 (1988).

See my "Modern Physics in the News"
bulletin board in our hallway; August 1995 *Physics Today*

WEB sites of interest to students in Quantum Mechanics

A visual presentation of the material we cover in Chapter 3 of French & Taylor (You'd probably want to skip down past the first part)

Just a simple example of current research interests

Animated simulation of electron wavepacket incident at some non-normal angle upon a potential barrier (The connection to Hungary is slow)

IBM on quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and even quantum teleportation (!)

A review of Schrodinger's Cat

Atomic Tunneling off of STM/AFM tips might hold clues to Macroscopic Quantum Mechanics

See the short section on Quantum Decoherence

See Arshad Kudrolli's Quantum Chaos

There are lots of "far-from-the-mainstream" folks out there. Fun stuff, but proceed with caution!

- http://mist.npl.washington.edu:80/npl/int_rep/tiqm/TI_toc.html
- http://www.hia.com:80/hia/pcr/qmbeynd.html
- http://www.hia.com:80/hia/pcr/2vecmind.html
- http://www.neo-tech.com:80/zonpower/book/chapters/footnotes/footnote22.
- html http://marlowe.wimsey.com:80/~rshand/reflections/vietnam/sumover.html

MAJOR READINGS:

- David J. Griffiths,
*Introduction to Quantum Mechanics* - Eisber and Resnick,
*Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles*

General References:

- Jim Baggott,
*The Meaning of Quantum Theory*. - Alastair Rae,
*Quantum Physics: Illusion or Reality?*A popularization. (Skip the first three, error-ridden, pages) - J. M. Jauch,
*Are Quanta Real?*A popularization of quantum mechanics in the form of a Galilean dialog. - R. P. Feynman,
*Character of Physical Law*. (In class, we watch a video of Feynman delivering a lecture from this book) - R. P. Feynman,
*QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter*. (The first part of the book views "that which is" as "the sum of all that might be" -- reality as an interference pattern.) - J. C. Polkinghorne,
*The Quantum World*. Written by a physicist turned priest. - Susan Strehle,
*Fiction in the Quantum Universe*. - Tom Stoppard,
*Hapgood*. A spy play that centers on quantum mechanics. - A. J. Leggett,
*The Problems of Physics*. - A. C. de la Torre, A. C. Dotson, "An entangled opinion
on the interpretation of quantum mechanics",
*American Journal of Physics***64**, 174 (1996). You may wish to contrast this with comments on "weak measurement" made in*Physical Review Letters***76**, 2832 (1996) - John Gribbin,
*In Search of Schrodinger's Cat: Quantum Physics and Reality*. A popularization - note chapter 10 on the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. - N. David Mermin, "Is the Moon There When Nobody
Looks? Reality and the Quantum Theory",
*Physics Today***38**, 38 (1985). A highly readable discussion of Bell's Theorem and the EPR paradox. - N. David Mermin, "Can a Phase Transition Make Quantum
Mechanics Less Embarrassing?",
*Physica A***177**, 561 (1991) A very amusing paper on the "wavefunction collapse" - Also: Banesh Hoffmann,
*The Strange Story of the Quantum*; Werner Heisenberg,*Physics and Philosophy*; Davies & Brown,*The Ghost in the Atom*; Max Born,*Nobel lecture*; Bernard d'Espagnat,*Veiled Reality*; Bas C. van Fraassen,*Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View*. As you choose topics, I can supply more specific references -- and you should perform some independent "library science" and come up with your own sources. If you find other worthwhile papers or books, please tell me about them!